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What is Financial Modelling

Financial modelling is the process of creating a mathematical representation or a simplified version of a real-world financial situation. It involves using various financial data and assumptions to build a model that helps individuals or organizations make informed decisions about their financial strategies, investments, and business plans. Financial modelling is commonly used in a wide range of applications, including corporate finance, investment banking, private equity, project finance, mergers and acquisitions, and financial analysis.

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    Key aspects of financial modelling include

    1. Gathering data
    2. Formulating assumptions
    3. Building the model
    4. Forecasting and projection
    5. Sensitivity analysis
    6. Valuation
    7. Scenario analysis

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    What are the contents of financial modelling

    Financial modelling is a process of creating a mathematical representation of a company’s financial situation, often used to make informed business decisions or for forecasting future financial performance. The contents of financial modelling can vary depending on the purpose, complexity, and industry. However, here are the common elements found in a typical financial model:

    1. Historical Financial Data: Gathering and analysing past financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement) to understand the company’s historical performance.
    2. Assumptions: Identifying and documenting the key assumptions that will drive the future projections. These assumptions can include revenue growth rates, expense percentages, capital expenditures, and working capital changes, among others.
    3. Revenue Projections: Forecasting future revenues based on expected sales growth, market conditions, and other relevant factors.
    4. Expense Projections: Estimating the different types of expenses, such as cost of goods sold (COGS), operating expenses, and interest expenses, based on historical trends and management’s guidance.
    5. Capital Expenditures (CAPEX): Projecting investments in long-term assets like property, plant, and equipment, which are crucial for expansion and growth.
    6. Depreciation and Amortization: Calculating the depreciation and amortization expenses associated with capital expenditures over their useful life.
    7. Working Capital: Modelling changes in current assets (e.g., accounts receivable, inventory) and current liabilities (e.g., accounts payable) to understand the company’s short-term liquidity needs.
    8. Debt Schedule: Tracking the company’s outstanding debt, including interest payments and principal repayments.
    9. Tax Projections: Estimating the company’s tax liabilities based on tax rates and applicable tax laws.
    10. Cash Flow Projections: Integrating the revenue and expense projections to derive the company’s cash flow over the forecast period.
    11. Financial Ratios: Calculating key financial ratios such as profitability ratios (e.g., gross margin, operating margin), liquidity ratios (e.g., current ratio, quick ratio), and leverage ratios (e.g., debt-to-equity ratio).
    12. Sensitivity Analysis: Assessing how changes in key assumptions impact the financial outcomes, helping to understand the model’s sensitivity to different scenarios.
    13. Valuation: If the financial model is used for investment analysis, it may include valuation techniques like discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, comparable company analysis (comps), or precedent transaction analysis.
    14. Financial Statements: Generating projected financial statements, including the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, for each forecasted period.
    15. Executive Summary: Summarizing the key findings, conclusions, and recommendations derived from the financial model.

    Why should an expert draft financial modelling

    An expert should draft financial modelling for several reasons:

    1. Accuracy: Financial modelling involves creating complex mathematical models to project future financial performance based on historical data and assumptions. An expert can ensure that the model’s calculations are accurate and reliable, minimizing errors and providing a more realistic view of the company’s financial situation.
    2. Complexity: Financial modelling can become quite intricate, especially for large corporations or complex financial transactions. An expert is well-equipped to handle the intricacies of building and structuring a comprehensive model that addresses all relevant aspects of the business.
    3. Decision-making: Financial models often serve as a basis for critical decision-making processes, such as investment evaluations, capital budgeting, mergers and acquisitions, or business expansion. An expert’s well-designed model can provide valuable insights into the potential outcomes of different scenarios, enabling better-informed decisions.
    4. Confidence: Stakeholders, including investors, board members, and management, rely on financial models to gain confidence in the company’s financial future. A model created by an expert instills trust in the results and conclusions, which can be crucial in gaining support for strategic initiatives.
    5. Sensitivity analysis: Experts can conduct sensitivity analysis, which involves testing the model’s sensitivity to various input variables. This analysis helps identify the key drivers of the business and potential risks, allowing for a better understanding of how changes in assumptions could impact financial performance.
    6. Adaptability: Financial models should be adaptable to changing market conditions, business strategies, and external factors. An expert can design a model that is flexible and easily updated to reflect any modifications in the business environment.
    7. Industry knowledge: A financial modelling expert possesses a deep understanding of the specific industry in which the company operates. This knowledge allows them to include industry-specific metrics and dynamics, making the model more relevant and insightful.
    8. Efficiency : An expert can efficiently build a financial model, saving time and resources for the organization. Their experience enables them to leverage best practices and avoid common pitfalls, resulting in a more streamlined process.
    9. Regulatory compliance : In some cases, financial models may be required to comply with specific regulatory standards or accounting principles. An expert can ensure that the model adheres to these guidelines, preventing any potential compliance issues.
    10. Communication: Effective communication of the model’s results and implications is vital for decision-makers to understand the findings and make informed choices. An expert can present the financial model’s outputs in a clear and concise manner, making it easier for stakeholders to grasp the key takeaways.

    Numbro's approach in preparing a financial model

    Preparing a financial model involves creating a comprehensive representation of a company’s financial performance, projections, and potential outcomes. Whether you’re evaluating a business idea, planning for growth, seeking funding, or making strategic decisions, a well-structured financial model is essential. Here’s a step-by-step approach to creating a financial model:

    1. Understand the Objective
    2. Gather Historical Data
    3. Define Key Assumptions
    4. Build Revenue Projections
    5. Model Operating Expenses
    6. Forecast Capital Expenditures (Capex)
    7. Project Working Capital
    8. Calculate Depreciation and Amortization
    9. Forecast Financing Activities
    10. Perform Sensitivity Analysis
    11. Create Visualizations
    12. Validate and Review
    13. Update and Iterate

    FAQs in preparing of Financial model


    1.Why do I need a financial model?

    A financial model helps you understand the financial implications of your business decisions. It aids in assessing the feasibility of a project, obtaining funding from investors or lenders, and setting realistic financial goals.

    2.What are the key components of a financial model?

    A.standard financial model comprises income statements, balance sheets, cash flow statements, supporting schedules, assumptions, and sensitivity analyses. Additionally, it might include valuation analysis, scenario analysis, and various KPIs.


    3.How should I handle seasonality in my financial model?

    A.  For businesses with seasonal patterns, consider incorporating seasonality factors into your revenue and expense projections. Use historical data to identify seasonal trends and adjust your assumptions accordingly.


    4.How often should I update my financial model?

    A.  Regularly update your financial model to reflect changing business conditions, actual performance, and new data. Quarterly updates are common, but the frequency may vary depending on your business’s needs.

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